Practice Tests


Unit One

1. _____ is an example of a normative age-graded influence.

A. The Great Depression B. Parental divorce C. A war D. The onset of menstruation

2. Renee suffered brain damage as the result of an automobile accident when she was 34 years old. This is an example of a _____ influence on development.

A. normative age-graded B. normative history graded
C. nonnormative history-graded D. nonnormative

3. A child’s school is a _____ force that influences development.

A. psychological B. life cycle C. sociocultural D. biological

4. _____ theorists propose that internal drives and unconscious motives motivate much of behavior.

A. Cognitive B. Learning C. Psychodynamic D. Ecological

5. The proper order of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development is _____:

A. anal, phallic, oral, latency, genital B. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital C. anal, oral, genital, latency, phallic D. oral, latency, genital, anal, phallic

6. According to Freud,

A. early experiences continue to influence behavior throughout life.
B. there are no universal principles of development. C. humans are consciously aware of the motivation behind their behavior. D. parents have very little influence on their children’s development.

7. Eight-month-old Megan is crying loudly because she is hungry and wants her bottle now. Freud would say that the _____ component of her personality is directing her behavior.

A. ego B. id C. superego D. superid

8. According to the principles of _____ theory, the consequences of a behavior determine whether that behavior will be repeated in the future.

A. cognitive-developmental B. competence-environmental press
C. information-processing D. operant conditioning

9._____ decreases the likelihood that a particular behavior will be repeated in the future.

A. Punishment B. Negative reinforcement C. Positive reinforcement
D. Self-efficacy

10. Observational learning is an important component of _____.

A. operant conditioning B. the systems approach C. psychodynamic theory D. social learning theory

11. Kohlberg developed a theory of _____.

A. psychosexual development B. operant conditioning
C. information-processing D. moral reasoning

12.In a _____, people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation.

A. structured observation B. naturalistic observation C. self-report
D. sampling of behavior with tasks

13.Dr. Peters has decided to use class attendance as a measure of student motivation. Her colleague, Dr. Martin, expresses concern that attendance may be due to health rather than motivation. Dr. Martin is questioning the _____ of Dr. Peter’s measure of motivation.

A. reliability B. validity C. representativeness D. artificiality

14.When scores on a test are very inconsistent from one administration to another, there is reason to be concerned about the test’s _____.

A. correlation coefficient B. cohort effects C. validity D. reliability

15.In a life span development course, a correlation of .90 was found between the amount of time students spent studying for the first exam and their scores on the exam. This means that _____

A. students who studied more received lower scores. B. students who studied more received higher scores. C. students who studied less received 90’s. D. students who studying more received 90’s.

16.A weakness of correlational designs is that they _____

A. are expensive to conduct. B. cannot be used to determine cause and effect. C. are often laboratory-based, so tend to be artificial. D. cannot be used to study the stability of behavior.

17.In a/an _____ study, key factors are manipulated to determine what causes a particular behavior.

A. correlational B. experimental C. sequential D. longitudinal

18.The desirable outcome of the crisis of adolescence, according to Erikson, is being able to _____

A. complete a task. B. love, marry and start a family. C. get along with others. D. see oneself as a unique person with a meaningful role.

19.Which type of therapy is based on learning theory?

A. individual B. family C. behavior D. drug

20.Learning is a result of _____.

A. experience B. ability C. maturation D. all of these

21.Behaviorists are most concerned with _____

A. measurable, observable behaviors. B. unconscious determination of behaviors. C. development of intelligence. D. personality conflicts between parents and children.

22.According to social-learning theory, social behaviors are acquired by children primarily through _____.

A. classical conditioning B. observation and imitation C. punishment of inappropriate behavior D. shaping

23.Freud’s psychosexual stages, Erikson’s psychosocial stages, and Piaget’s cognitive-developmental stages are considered _____.

A. opinions B. hypotheses C. theories D. proven facts

24.According to Piaget, adolescents should be in which stage of cognitive development?

A. sensorimotor B. preoperational C. formal operations D. concrete operations

25.Someone who examines how children think and how their cognition changes in stages as they move from preschool to adolescence is using which approach?

A. behaviorist B. Piagetian C. psychometric D. information-processing

26.When a child learns to behave in a specific way in order to obtain a specific result, _____ has occurred.

A. habituation B. classical conditioning C. operant conditioning
D. none of these

27.Egg and sperm cells each contain _____ chromosomes.

A. 23 B. 26 C. 43 D. 46

28.The normal compliment of sex chromosomes for a woman is _____, and for a man is _____.


29.Inheritance of eye color operates on the dominant-recessive principle.  The gene for brown eyes (B) is dominant and the gene for blue eyes (b) is recessive. If Amy inherited one brown eye allele (B) and one blue eye allele (b), what color eyes does she have?

A. blue B. bluish-brown C. green D. brown

30.Intelligence is determined by a number of different genes. Therefore, intelligence follows a _____ pattern of inheritance.

A. dominant-recessive B. sex-linked C. polygenic D. codominant

31.Barry and Larry are twins that came from a single fertilized egg that split in two. They are _____ twins.

A. monozygotic B. dizygotic C. codominant D. polygenic

32.If a trait is strongly influenced by genetic factors, one would expect to find that with respect to that trait, _____

A. dizygotic twins are more alike than monozygotic twins.
B. dizygotic twins are more alike than siblings. C. adopted children resemble their biological parents more than their adoptive parents.
D. adoptive children resemble their adoptive parents more than their biological parents.

33.A fertilized egg is known as a/an _____.

A. embryo B. zygote C. germ disc D. fetus

34.Nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the mother and the fetus through the _____.

A. placenta B. endoderm C. ectoderm D. mesoderm

35.Which of the following women is most likely to have a child whose development was harmed prenatally?

A. Mindy, who had the flu while she was pregnant. B. Suzanne, who had a cold while she was pregnant. C. Carol, who drank alcohol moderately through out her pregnancy. D. Jasmine, who worked long hours at a video display terminal through out her pregnancy.

36.Which of the following strategies would you least expect to find as part of a childbirth class.

A. Teaching pregnant women ways to relax during labor, such as deep-breathing techniques. B. Encouraging pregnant women to maximize the use of pain-relieving drugs during birth. C. Showing pregnant women how to use visual imagery to take their minds off pain. D. Having pregnant women bring a supportive "coach" with them to class.

37.Children born to women who smoke during pregnancy tend to show:

A. retardation of growth. B. social malajustment. C. learning problems in school. D. all of the above

38.Arnold has a gene for Huntington’s disease and will definitely have the disorder. This is an example of transmission by _____ inheritance.

A. recessive B. dominant C. sex-linked D. multifactorial

39.Self-awareness is well established in most children by age _____.

A. 6 months B. 1 year C. 2 years D. 6 years

40.In Piaget’s theory, psychological structures that organize experience are called _____.

A. schemes B. scripts C. scaffolding D. mental software

41.When new experiences will easily fit into existing schemes, Piaget would say that _____ is taking place.

A. fast mapping B. assimilation C. accommodation D. over extension

42.Which of the following shows Piaget’s periods of cognitive development in their proper sequence?

A. preoperational, concrete operational, sensorimotor, formal operational B. sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational C. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational D. preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational, concrete operational

43.Piaget’s concept of egocentrism is best illustrated by which of the following?

A. 5-year-old Katie preening in front of a mirror. B. 4-year-old Kelly holding a picture in front of the TV, so "big bird" can see it. C. 6-year-old Kaitlin calling her friend Kara every day to see if she can play. D. 3-year-old Kaylie believing that she becomes a princess when she puts on a crown.

44.Which of the following is not a characteristic of preoperational thinking?

A. reversibility B. egocentrism C. animism D. confusion between appearance and reality

45.Which of the following is not a criticism of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

A. Piaget’s theory is too narrow and needs to be more comprehensive. B. Alternative explanations may give better explanations of children’s performance on Piaget’s tasks. C. Children’s performance across several tasks is not as consistent as Piaget predicted. D. Piaget underestimated the effect of culture on cognitive development.

46.The information-processing view _____

A. proposes that cognitive development occurs in a sequence of 4 stages. B. considers adaptation to be the primary mechanism for development. C. compares human cognition to computer hardware & software. D. is based on behavioral learning theory.

47.Children are more likely to use private speech _____

A. after a correct response than after a mistake. B. on difficult tasks than on easy tasks. C. when they are skilled rather than unskilled at a task.  D. when their behavior is being regulated by speech from other people.

48._____ involves speaking slowly and exaggerating changes in pitch and volume.

A. An over extension B. Babbling C. Cooing D. Infant directed speech

49.Eighteen-month-old Shannon saw an elderly gray haired woman and called her "Grandma," even though she was not her grandmother. This mistake, common to young children, is called _____.

A. telegraphic speech B. over regularization C. an over extension D. an under extension

50.Two-year-old Tyler speaks in sentences such as "Me go" instead of "I want to go," and "She sleep" instead of "She is sleeping." This is _____.

A. telegraphic speech B. over regularization C. fast mapping
D. grammatical morphemes

Answers: 1(D), 2(D), 3(C), 4(C), 5(B), 6(A), 7(B), 8(D), 9(A), 10(D), 11(D), 12(B), 13(B), 14(D), 15(B), 16(B), 17(B), 18(D), 19(C), 20(D), 21(A), 22(B), 23(C), 24(C), 25(B), 26(C), 27(A), 28(D), 29(D), 30(C), 31(A), 32(C), 33(B), 34(A), 35(C), 36(B), 37(D), 38(B), 39(C), 40(A), 41(B), 42(C), 43(B), 44(A), 45(A), 46(C), 47(B), 48(D), 49(C), 50(A)


Unit Two

1. Infants are in Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development, which involves a crisis of _____.

A. autonomy versus shame and doubt B. initiative versus shame and doubt C. basic trust versus mistrust D. industry versus inferiority

2. According to Erikson, a balance between autonomy versus shame and doubt leads to the development of _____.

A. hope B. purpose C. will D. self

3. Which of the following statements concerning infants’ relationships with their mothers and fathers is true?

A. Infants usually form attachments to their mothers and fathers simultaneously. B. Fathers usually spend more time playing with their infants than in providing care for them. C. Infants usually only attach to their mothers. D. Infants generally prefer playing with their mother over playing with their father.

4. Mary Ainsworth used ____ to assess the quality of attachment in infants.

A. the strange situation procedure B. habituation C. interviews with caregivers D. a visual cliff

5. Eighteen-month-old Eric responded to a brief separation from his mother by holding up his arms to be held when she came back, and then happily returning to his play after a minute or two. Eric displays a _____ attachment to his mother.

A. secure B. avoidant C. resistant D. disorganized (disoriented)

6. The security of an infant’s attachment is ____

A. unrelated to the quality of future social relationships. B. related to the sensitivity and responsiveness of the care received. C. based purely on biological forces. D. stronger when parents wait a long time before responding to his/her cries.

7. Seven-month-old Stephen looked away and began to fuss when his aunt, whom he was seeing for the first time, tried to pick him up. Stephen is showing signs of _____.

A. insecure attachment B. prosocial behavior C. social referencing
D. stranger anxiety

8. When a clown approached Emily at a circus, Emily looked at her mother to see how she was reacting. When her mother smiled and said hello, Emily smiled at the clown also. Emily was showing _____.

A. a complex emotion B. insecure attachment C. social referencing
D. parallel play

9. Sarah and Beth are coloring pictures in separate coloring books, but often look to see what the other is doing. They are engaged in _____.

A. solitary play B. parallel play C. cooperative play D. make-believe play

10.Which of the following is the best example of altruistic behavior?

A. Jennie, who gave some of her prize tokens to a friend who had not won any. B. Christine, who said "ouch" when her friend tripped and fell. C. Valerie who gave her friend an apple in exchange for a candy bar. D. Stephanie, who fed her dog every day because she was assigned that chore.

11.When a child actually experiences what another child is feeling, the child is displaying _____.

A. social referencing B. dispositional praise C. altruism D. empathy

12.Females _____ than males.

A. tend to be more active B. have a higher mortality rate C. are less susceptible to stress D. engage in fewer solitary activities

13.As a group, males _____ than females.

A. have higher verbal ability B. have better spatial ability C. are more easily influenced by others D. are less aggressive

14.During Piaget’s concrete operational stage, children _____

A. are often more egocentric than they were during the preoperational period. B. often confuse appearances with reality. C. are unable to reverse their thinking. D. are able to perform mental operations.

15.The ability to draw appropriate conclusions from facts is referred to as:

A. deductive reasoning. B. divergent thinking. C. performing a mental operation. D. concrete thinking

16.The _____ is a permanent storehouse of knowledge that has an enormous capacity.

A. sensorimotor B. working memory C. long-term memory D. IQ

17.The difficulty of the problems that a child can solve on an intelligence test determines the child’s _____.

A. chronological age B. mental age C. mental operations D. divergent reasoning

18.Which of the following is the formula that Terman used to determine the intelligence quotient?

A. IQ=MA/CA x 100 B. IQ=CA/MA x 100 C. IQ= MA x CA x 100
D. IQ=CA/100 x MA

19.Who has the highest IQ?

A. A 4-year-old with a mental age of 4. B. A 10-year-old with a mental age of 12. C. A 6-year-old with a mental age of 10. D. A 5-year-old with a mental age of 3.

20.Which of the following individuals helped devise one of the early IQ tests?

A. Freud B. Chomsky C. Binet D. Watson

21.May is adopted at the age of one. When she is given an IQ test at age 21, she is most likely to be similar to her _____.

A. adoptive mother B. adoptive father C. biological mother D. none of these

22._____ refers to the extent that a test really measures what it claims to measure.

A. Reliability B. Stability C. Variability D. Validity

23.If intelligence is influenced by genes, then the IQ scores of identical twins should be:

A. less similar than those of fraternal twins. B. less similar than those of children and their adopted siblings. C. less similar than those of children and their biological parents. D. more similar than those of other pairs of siblings.

24.Gifted children:

A. tend to have more emotional problems than their non-gifted peers. B. often have difficulty getting along with other children. C. tend to be more mature than their non-gifted peers. D. will flourish even if their talents are not nurtured by others.

25.Which of the following questions requires divergent thinking?

A. What is 3,928 + 2,432? B. How many different ways can you think of to use a paper clip? C. What is the chemical composition of water?
D. Who was the 35th president of the United States?

26.Who is most likely to be described as having familial mental retardation?

A. Sam, who has Down Syndrome and an IQ of 45. B. Stella, who suffered oxygen deprivation during birth and has an IQ of 20.
C. Susan, who was born 15 weeks premature, has an IQ of 85, and is visually impaired. D. Sunny, who has an IQ of 65 and no obvious biological or physical problems.

27.Approximately 90% of all mentally retarded individuals are classified as _____ retarded.

A. mildly B. moderately C. severely D. profoundly

28.A child with a learning disability has:

A. difficulty in one or more academic subjects. B. below average intelligence. C. difficulty learning due to a visual impairment.
D. learning problems due to poor teaching.

29.Clyde is unusually energetic, has difficulty concentrating in school, and often acts without thinking. He shows several characteristics of _____.

A. a learning disability B. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
C. mild mental retardation D. moderate mental retardation

30.Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder:

A. can be successfully treated with depressant drugs. B. are not usually capable of learning to regulate their own behavior. C. are most successfully treated by reducing the amount of sugar and food additives in their diet. D. are most successfully treated with a combination of medication, instruction, and parent training techniques.

31.When parents are warm and responsive, children tend to be _____.

A. anxious B. low in self-control C. secure, happy and well behaved
D. less well behaved, but high in self-esteem

32.Children benefit most when parents exhibit _____ control over them.

A. no B. very little C. moderate D. very strong

33.Jessica’s parents usually explain why they set specific rules, and encourage her to talk with them about their rules. They do have expectations for her behavior, but they are affectionate, loving and interested in what is going on in Jessica’s life. Her parents most closely fit the _____ parenting style.

A. authoritarian B. authoritative C. indulgent-permissive
D. indifferent-uninvolved

34.Victoria’s parents dote on her. They give her the best of everything and cater to her whims. They are usually satisfied with her behavior and rarely use discipline. Their parenting style most closely resembles ____.

A. authoritarian B. authoritative C. indulgent-permissive
D. indifferent-uninvolved

35.Children with _____ parents usually have low self-esteem, and are impulsive, aggressive and moody.

A. authoritarian B. authoritative C. indulgent-permissive
D. indifferent-uninvolved

36.A male rat is given an injection of testosterone. Which of the following behaviors is likely to increase as a consequence?

A. aggressive behavior B. maternal behavior C. non specific gender behavior D. none of these

37.During adolescence, what changes in hormone production occur?

A. Boys experience a decrease in thyroxine production. B. Girls experience a decrease in growth hormone production. C. Boys experience an increase in estrogen production. D. Girls experience an increase in estrogen production.

38.According to what we know from research about obesity:

A. obesity is almost entirely due to environmental factors. B. obesity is a result of both genetic and environmental factors. C. if obese youth lose weight, they will always regain it. D. problems with childhood obesity usually disappear when adolescents growth through their growth spurt.

39.Heather sometimes eats uncontrollably and then vomits or takes laxatives. Heather appears to have _____.

A. bulimia nervosa B. anorexia nervosa C. a basal metabolic rate
D. obesity

40.Anorexia is most likely to occur in _____.

A. early childhood B. males C. well-behaved adolescents D. students with poor grades

41.According to Erikson, the developmental task of adolescence is to:

A. establish intimacy with another person. B. establish a sense of trust. C. achieve an identity. D. achieve generativity.

42.Individuals who are examining different alternatives, but have yet to find a satisfactory identity, are in the _____ identity status.

A. diffusion B. foreclosure C. moratorium D. achievement

43.Compared to adolescents who do not have a part-time job, adolescents who work:

A. are likely to have higher self-esteem. B. are less likely to be substance abusers. C. have a more realistic understanding of how to manage money. D. tend to argue with their parents more.

44.Juantita’s mother was 16 when Juanita was born. Juanita is likely to:

A. have fewer behavior problems than children born to an older mother. B. have no more medical problems than children born to an older mother. C. do less well in school than children born to an older mother. D. be no different than children born to an older mother.

45.Which of the following is accepted today as the most probable cause of homosexuality?

A. mental illness B. dominating mother and weak father C. interaction of hormonal and environmental factors D. seduction by a homosexual

46.Which of the following substances is most likely to be used by adolescents?

A. marijuana B. cocaine C. amphetamines D. alcohol

47.Studies of alcoholism have concluded that it:

A. is a character weakness. B. may reflect a genetic vulnerability. C. is determined entirely by biological forces. D. is seldom seen in family clusters.

48.Pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability and low self-esteem, are characteristic of an individual who _____.

A. is depressed B. has a drinking problem C. has an addiction to drugs D. is a juvenile delinquent.


A. is more common among boys than girls. B. is equally common in boys and girls. C. is more common among African American adolescents than among European American adolescents. D. is more common in European American adolescents than in Native American adolescents.

50._____ are acts that are not crimes if committed by an adult, such as truancy, sexual promiscuity, and running away from home.

A. Status offences B. Index offenses C. Diffusion status D. fore-closure status

Answers: 1(C), 2(C), 3(B), 4(A), 5(A), 6(B), 7(D), 8(C), 9(B), 10(A), 11(D), 12(C), 13(B), 14(D), 15(A), 16(C), 17(B), 18(A), 19(C), 20(C), 21(C), 22(D), 23(D), 24(C), 25(B), 26(D), 27(A), 28(A), 29(B), 30(D), 31(C). 32(C), 33(B), 34(C), 35(D), 36(A), 37(D), 38(B), 39(A), 40(C), 41(C), 42(C), 43(D), 44(C), 45(C), 46(D), 47(B), 48(A), 49(A), 50(A)


Unit Three

1. In non-Western cultures, _____ is the most important marker of adult status.

A. beginning a full-time job B. completing one’s education C. getting married D. becoming a parent

2. According to Erikson, the major issue during young adulthood involves:

A. trust versus mistrust. B. identity versus role confusion. C. intimacy versus isolation. D. integrity versus despair.

3. Research on Erikson’s theory suggests that:

A. most men and career-oriented women resolve identity issues before intimacy issues. B. most men resolve intimacy issues before identity issues. C. most women tend to resolve intimacy issues before identity issues. D. only career-oriented women tend to resolve intimacy issues before identity issues.

4. The leading cause of death for young adults is _____.

A. AIDs B. accidents C. cancer D. cardiovascular disease

5. Which of the following lifestyle factors contributes most to health problems in our society?

A. lack of exercise B. drinking C. smoking D. poor nutrition

6. Which of the following statements about health is true?

A. Men are healthier than women. B. African Americans are healthier than European Americans. C. Higher income is positively related to health. D. Education level is negatively related to health.

7. Which of the following tasks requires the use of fluid intelligence?

A. defining the word "intelligence" B. naming the 1999 NCAA Division I women’s basketball champion C. describing the main features of the 3 periods of prenatal development D. finding the shortest way from Point A to Point B in a maze

8. Fluid intelligence _____ throughout adulthood, while crystallized intelligence _____.

A. declines; improves B. improves; declines C. declines; also declines D. improves; also improves

9. Which of the following is not one of the tenets of Kohlberg’s theory?

A. The stages of moral reasoning follow an invariant sequence. B. The level of moral reasoning is associated with mental development. C. Moral reasoning changes qualitatively over the life span. D. Cultural factors determine the sequence of stages.

10.Research about changes in people’s perceptions of themselves with age has shown that:

A. young and middle-aged adults see themselves as improving with age, whereas older adults see decline in their future. B. young, middle-aged, and older adults all see themselves as improving with age. C. young and middle-aged adults see themselves as declining with age, whereas older adults see themselves as improving with age. D. young, middle-aged and older adults all see themselves as declining with age.

11.Results of longitudinal studies of self-concept has shown that self-concept is _____.

A. very unstable B. unrelated to future life satisfaction C. negatively related to life satisfaction later in life D. positively related to future life satisfaction

12.Enrique believes that the degree of success he has in college will be highly related to how much he goes to class and how hard he studies.  Enrique has a strong sense of _____.

A. self-concept B. perceived competence C. possible self D. personal control

13.Women tend to base friendships on _____, while men are more likely to base friendships on _____.

A. shared activities; competition B. intimacy and emotional sharing; shared activities C. shared interests; emotional sharing D. competition; discussing personal matters

14.Which of the following is not one of Sternberg’s components of love?

A. passion B. intimacy C. commitment D. sociability

15.Early in a relationship:

A. passion and intimacy are high but commitment is usually low.
B. Passion and commitment are high but intimacy is usually low.
C. Intimacy is high but passion and commitment tend to be low.
D. Passion is high but intimacy and commitment tend to be low.

16.Cross-cultural research has found that in cultures around the world, men look for _____ in a mate and women look for _____.

A. physical attractiveness; men who will be good providers
B. physical attractiveness; physical attractiveness, too C. chastity; love D. intelligence; a pleasing disposition

17.Benefits of marriage include all but which of the following?

A. economic advantages B. reduced stress for both partners C. a way for orderly child rearing D. opportunity for emotional growth

18.Lana’s husband severely abused her verbally, and physically, and told her that he would never let her leave him. One day, as her approached her with his belt, she shot and killed him. Her action was probably caused by _____.

A. a need to control B. jealousy C. misuse of power D. battered woman syndrome

19.Men who abuse their spouses are likely to have all but which of the following characteristics?

A. sexual inadequacy B. low self-esteem C. intense shame & doubt
D. social isolation

20.Women in long-term abusive relationships tend to view their aggressive acts as _____, whereas men _____.

A. due to jealousy; view their own aggressive acts as self defense
B. non-violent; harbor feelings of guilt over their own abusive actions C. self-defense; claim their abusive actions are due to fear
D. self-defense; do not see their actions as abusive

21.Cohabitation prior to marriage:

A. is associated with happier marriages. B. is associated with less happy marriages and a higher risk of divorce. C. does not appear to be related to marital satisfaction or divorce rate. D. is a more common alternative to marriage in the U.S. than in the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden.

22.Which of the following is associated with greater marital satisfaction?

A. Being over 20, rather than under 20, at the time of marriage.
B. Having dissimilar values and interests. C. Having one partner contribute more to the relationship. D. Cohabiting prior to marriage.

23.Mike and Yolanda are preparing for the birth of their first child. If they are like most couples, what will happen to their marriage satisfaction after the child is born?

A. Their marital satisfaction will increase. B. They will experience no change in marital satisfaction. C. Their marital satisfaction will decrease.  D. Her marital satisfaction will increase, while his will decrease.

24.When Mike and Yolana’s children leave home,

A. Their marriage satisfaction is likely to increase, especially for Yolanda. B. They are not likely to experience any changes in marital satisfaction. C. Their marital satisfaction is likely to decrease. D. His marital satisfaction is likely to increase, while her satisfaction is likely to decrease.

25.The most common form of family in Western societies is the _____.

A. nuclear family B. extended family C. life cycle family D. empty nest family

26.Couples who choose not to have children:

A. have less happy marriages. B. have less freedom. C. have lower standards of living. D. face social criticism.

27.Compared to nonadoptive children, adopted children:

A. are less confident. B. have a less positive view of the world. C. feel less in control of their lives. D. view their custodial parents as more nurturing.

28.Which of the following statements about divorce is false?

A. Divorce is more common in the U.S. than in Canada, Great Britain, and Japan. B. African Americans are more likely than European Americans to divorce. C. The average failed marriage ends within 3 or 4 years. D. Men and women are affected by divorce in the same ways.

29.Most people who divorce:

A. are more depressed than they were when they were married.
B. wish they were still married. C. overestimated the pain that the divorce would cause. D. experience more trauma if they are younger, rather than older, at the time of the divorce.

30.When parents of adult children divorce:

A. young adult children are usually not emotionally affected.
B. relationships with parents are usually not harmed. C. divorced mothers are less likely than fathers to have positive relationships with their children. D. divorced fathers are less likely than mothers to have positive relationships with their adult children.

31.Which of the following statements about remarriage is true?

A. Nearly 80% of divorced people remarry within the first three years. B. Women are more likely than men to remarry. C. The older people are, the more likely they are to remarry. D. For most ethnic groups, the divorce rate for remarriages is lower than for first marriages.

32.According to research, _____ is common in midlife.

A. men become more nurturing B. women become less assertive
C. both men and women become less introspective D. basic temperament tends to change

33.Which of the following is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis?

A. eating foods high in calcium B. reducing alcohol intake
C. exercising D. being postmenopausal

34.A decline in estrogen is related to:

A. a decreased risk of osteoporosis. B. a decreased risk of memory loss. C. an increased risk of extreme weight loss. D. an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

35._____ results when you appraise a situation or event as exceeding your personal, social or other resources.

A. Type A behavior B. Type B behavior C. Coping D. Stress

36.Harry hates to wait in lines, is very competitive, has a quick temper, and is often hostile toward others. Harry shows many symptoms of a _____ behavior pattern.

A. Type A B. Type B C. Type C D. Type D

37._____ exercise has the best impact on health.

A. No B. Mild C. Moderate D. strenuous

38.The skills and knowledge necessary for people to function in everyday life are referred to as _____.

A. fluid intelligence B. crystallized intelligence C. practical intelligence D. unexercised ability

39.When Margaret is faced with a practical problem, she tackles the problem head on and does something about it. What kind of approach is this?

A. passive-dependent behavior B. avoidant thinking and denial
C. cognitive-analysis D. problem-focused action

40.Raymond is highly anxious, hostile, self-conscious and impulsive. Raymond appears to be high on the _____ personality dimension.

A. extraversion B. neuroticism C. openness to new experience
D. conscientiousness

41.Research examining personality traits has found evidence that:

A. personality traits are generally stable across adulthood.
B. Personality traits change greatly across adulthood. C. Personality is primarily due to environmental factors. D. Personality is primarily due to age factors.

42.According to Erikson, _____ becomes of increasing importance during middle adulthood.

A. identity B. integrity C. intimacy D. generativity

43.According to research, most middle-aged women in their fifties report that:

A. their quality of life is poor compared to young adulthood. B. they miss having children at home, and experience the "empty nest" syndrome. C. they feel less assertive and independent than they did in their early thirties. D. their quality of life is very good.

44.Research evidence suggests that:

A. midlife is no more or less traumatic than other periods of life.
B. Midlife is slightly more likely to be a time of crisis than other periods of life. C. midlife crisis is a universal stage. D. no fundamental changes of any kind occur during adulthood.

45.Who is most likely to provide care for aging parents?

A. sons & daughters B. sons & daughters-in-law C. daughters & sons-in-law D. daughters & daughters-in-law

46.Compared to European Americans, Hispanic caregivers are:

A. likely to report higher levels of caregiver stress. B. likely to believe more strongly in filial obligation. C. less likely to use prayer, faith or religion as a coping strategy. D. less likely to be caring for people who are at higher risk of chronic disease and more disabled.

47.Grandparents who derive meaning from their relationahip with their grandchildren because of being seen as wise, are focusing on the _____ dimension of meaning.

A. centrality B. reinvolvement with personal past C. valued elder
D. immortality through clan

48.Compared to European American grandparents, African American grandparents:

A. tend to be more involved in teaching their grandchildren. B. are less willing to take a grandparent education course. C. perceive grandparenthood as a central role to a lesser degree. D. over 60 are less likely to feel that they are fulfilling an important role.

49.Grandparents who request that their grandchildren be allowed to live with them in order to ensure that the grandchildren learn the native ways, have a _____ grandparenting style.

A. fictive B. cultural conservator C. valued elder D. centrality

50._____ are the most likely to stay in close contact after the child reaches adulthood.

A. Mothers & daughters B. Mothers & sons C. Fathers & daughters D.Fathers & sons

Answers: 1(C), 2(C), 3(A), 4(B), 5(C), 6(C), 7(D), 8(A), 9(D), 10(A), 11(D), 12(D), 13(B), 14(D), 15(D), 16(A), 17(B), 18(D), 19(C), 20(D), 21(B), 22(A), 23(C), 24(A), 25(A), 26(D), 27(D), 28(D), 29(A), 30(D), 31(A), 32(A), 33(D), 34(D), 35(D), 36(A), 37(C), 38(C), 39(D), 40(B), 41(A), 42(D), 43(D), 44(A), 45(D), 46(B), 47(C), 48(A), 49(B), 50(A)


Unit Four

1. The fastest growing age group in the United States is _____.

A. 20 to 40 years B. 40 to 60 C. 60 to 85 D. over 85 years

2. Which of the following factors adds years to life expectancy?

A. being unmarried B. having parents who lived to age 80 C. being poor D. living in a large city

3. Menopause:

A. is cessation of ovulation and menstruation. B. precedes the climacteric. C. occurs in both men and women. D. generally occurs by age 40.

4. The _____ theory of aging compares the aging human body to an old, deteriorating machine.

A. cellular B. metabolic C. wear-and-tear D. programmed cell death

5. _____ is caused by interruptions in the blood flow in the brain.

A. Cardiac arrest B. A stroke C. Hypertension D. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

6. Fred walks very slowly, has difficulty getting in and out of chairs, and has a hand tremor. Fred exhibits several symptoms of _____.

A. cardiovascular disease B. Alzheimer’s disease C. Parkinson’s disease D. vascular dementia

7. Older adults _____ than younger adults.

A. are less bothered by glare B. take less time to adapt to changes in illumination C. have more difficulty reading things close to them
D. require less light to see

8. Researchers agree that _____ is a universal behavioral change in aging.

A. an increase in wisdom B. psychomotor slowing C. recognition memory decline D. intellectual decline

9. Wisdom is:

A. the same thing as creativity. B. found exclusively in older adults.
C. associated with experience. D. not related to intent or character.

10.Jessica is suffering from dysphoria. In other words, Jessica:

A. has an anxiety disorder. B. has Alzheimer’s disease. C. is unable to speak. D. is feeling sad and depressed.

11.Internal belief systems are of particular importance to views of depression that focus on _____ factors.

A. psychosocial B. biochemical C. neurological D. physiological

12.Lauren was diagnosed as depressed. To treat her depression, she was advised to increase the number of activities in which she was involved. She joined a community service organization and started going out with friends at least once a week. This kind of treatment is associated with:

A. cognitive therapy. B. behavior therapy. C. psychoanalysis D. a biochemical approach.

13.Anxiety disorders:

A. are more common in younger adults rather than older adults.
B. can be effectively treated with relaxation therapy. C. cannot be successfully treated with psychotherapy. D. require larger doses of treatment medication in older adults.

14.Eighty-year-old Alfred is becoming very forgetful, frequently confused about where he is, often can’t think of words he wants to use, and sometimes fails to recognize family members. These are symptoms of _____.

A. depression B. an anxiety disorder C. Alzheimer’s disease D. normal aging

15.A definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can only be made based on:

A. blood tests. B. neurological tests. C. psychological tests. D. autopsy of the brain after death.

16.Which of the following is not a possible cause of pseudodementia?

A. severe depression B. thyroid deficiencies C. brain tumors in the temporal lobe D. Alzheimer’s disease

17.As the over-80 population increases dramatically in the next 40 years, _____ will probably be most affected.

A. defense systems B. housing C. social service systems
D. transportation systems

18.Which of the following does not happen as we age?

A. The heart begins to pump more blood per minute. B. The arteries stiffen. C. Fat deposits form in the heart and arteries. D. The amount of muscle tissue in the heart decreases.

19.Studies show that older people have difficulty detecting the odor of:

A. spoiled milk. B. body perspiration. C. burning food. D. the substance added to natural gas to give it a smell.

20.Willis and Schaie (1992) showed that the cognitive abilities of older adults _____ with training.

A. can be significantly improved B. can not be improved, but their decline can be reduced C. are not affected D. are only made worse

21._____ has been linked to wisdom.

A. Empathy B. Egocentrism C. Dysphoria D. Anxiety

22.Erikson proposed that during late adulthood, the issue of _____ is of central importance.

A. generativity versus stagnation B. intimacy versus isolation
C. identity versus role confusion D. integrity versus despair

23.In order to achieve integrity, older adults engage in _____.

A. life review B. despair C. a fear of death D. blaming others for their troubles

24.Which of the following is most strongly associated with the achievement of integrity?

A. socioeconomic status B. cultural background C. self-acceptance
D. self-criticism

25.Research on well-being and aging has found that:

A. younger adults see themselves as being closer to the kind of person they really want to be, than do older adults. B. older adults see themselves as being closer to the kind of person they really want to be, than do younger adults. C. most people of all ages describe themselves as being close to the kind of person they really want to be. D. very few people of any age describe themselves as being close to the kind of person they really want to be.

26.Older adults rely on _____ more than anything or anyone else to help them cope with problems.

A. spouses B. children C. friends D. religious faith

27.Who is widely credited with having inspired the current interest in the psychology of death and dying?

A. Kubler-Ross B. Freud C. Erikson D. Neugarten

28.A person who asks, "How many years do I have left?" is viewing death as a/an _____.

A. analogy B. thief of meaning C. boundary D. image or object

29._____ is now the most widely accepted criteria for determining when death has occurred.

A. Clinical death B. Brain death C. A persistent vegetative state
D. Bioethics

30.When Dr. Jack Kevorkian used his suicide machine to end the life of a terminally ill patient, he was committing _____.

A. active euthanasia B. passive euthanasia C. suicide D. a universally accepted act

31._____ is defined as allowing a person to die by withholding an available treatment.

A. A living will B. Durable power of attorney C. Active euthanasia
D. Passive euthanasia

32.By about _____ years of age, most children began to realize that death is permanent, that everyone dies eventually, and that all biological functions stop when a person dies.

A. 2 to 3 B. 5 to 7 C. 9 to 12 D. 13 to 15

33.When their child is faced with the death of someone close to them, parents should:

A. explain death as being similar to sleeping. B. not allow the child to attend the funeral. C. keep explanations simple. D. avoid talking about the death.

34.A shift from thinking about time, in terms of how long one has lived to thinking about how long one has left to live, usually occurs during _____.

A. adolescence B. early adulthood C. middle adulthood D. late adulthood

35._____ tend to be more accepting and less anxious about death than any other age group.

A. Adolescents B. Young adults C. Middle-aged adults D. Older adults

36.The proper sequence of Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying is:

A. anger, denial, depression, acceptance & bargaining. B. acceptance, depression, denial, anger & bargaining. C. denial, anger, bargaining, depression & acceptance. D. denial, depression, anger, bargaining & acceptance.

37.In hospices,

A. the emphasis is on prolonging life. B. families are discouraged from visiting. C. a goal of medical care is to control pain. D. there is no medical care available.

38.Young adults die mainly from _____.

A. acute diseases B. suicide C. accidents D. chronic diseases

39.The emotional reactions following a loss are called _____, whereas the culturally approved behaviors that express feelings after a loss are referred to as _____.

A. mourning; grief B. grief; mourning C. shock; grieving D. mourning; recovery

40.Elaine’s husband died several weeks ago. In Elaine’s grief process, she should:

A. expect to be back to "normal" soon. B. expect to make a full recovery in about 2 years. C. try to follow the same process of grieving that someone she knows went through. D. work to adjust to the environment without her husband.

41.Longitudinal research on bereavement suggests that bereavement:

A. causes poor health and increased psychological distress. B. leads to poor health, but does not increase psychological distress. C. does not cause poor health, but increases psychological distress. D. does not cause either poor health or psychological distress.

42.Who is most likely to experience physical health problems following bereavement?

A. Todd, who is a young adult. B. Larry, who is a middle-aged adult. C. Bert, who is an older adult. D. Todd, Larry and Bert are all equally likely to report physical health problems following bereavement.

43.Which of the following statements about abnormal grief reactions is false?

A. The most common sign of abnormal grief is excessive guilt and self-blame. B. The most common result of abnormal grief is depression. C. The intensity and duration of grief, not the kind of reaction, distinguishes normal from abnormal grief. D. Most people suffering from abnormal grief are able to recover without professional help.

44.The death of a _____ is generally believed to be the worst type of loss.

A. child B. parent C. spouse D. sibling

45.Susan’s cortical functions have ceased, but her brain stem is still active.   Susan is best described as _____.

A. in a persistent vegetative state. B. brain dead C. clinically dead
D. euthanized

46.Euthanasia is a bioethical _____.

A. issue B. procedure C. fact D. process

47.Children respond to the death of a pet:

A. in much the same way as they respond to the death of a relative.
B. by getting a new pet. C. with much less emotion than when a relative dies. D. with much more emotion than when a relative dies.

48.Teen-agers appear to be _____ concerning their feelings about death.

A. ignorant B. quiet C. open D. certain

49.The grieving process is much _____ than most people believe it to be.

A. shorter B. easier C. less complex D. longer

50.Anticipitory grief has been shown to reduce:

A. the incidence of depression following the death of a family member. B. a parent’s acceptance of the death of a child. C. The acquisition of effective social functioning following the death of a loved one. D. the speed at which normal happiness is obtained.

Answers: 1(D), 2(B), 3(A), 4(A), 5(B), 6(C), 7(C), 8(B), 9(C), 10(D), 11(A), 12(B), 13(B), 14(C), 15(D), 16(D), 17(C), 18(A), 19(D), 20(A), 21(A), 22(D), 23(A), 24(C), 25(B), 26(D), 27(A), 28(C), 29(B), 30(A), 31(D), 32(B), 33(C), 34(C), 35(D), 36(C), 37(C), 38(C), 39(B), 40(D), 41(C), 42(B), 43(D), 44(A), 45(A), 46(A), 47(A), 48(B), 49(D), 50(A)

Updated 8/15/07