PSYC 2301 PRACTICE TESTS
Unit One1. Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of _____.
2. The essential difference between behavior and mental processes is:
3. Which of the following is not a goal of psychology?
4. When a psychologist develops a tentative explanation of facts gathered in an investigation, he/she has formed a _____.
5. _____ is usually credited with founding the first psychological laboratory.
6. Structuralists used a technique in their research, in which trained observers would attempt to analyze their own conscious experiences. This technique was called _____.
7. Functionalism would agree that the human mind:
8. William James was highly influential in the development of _____.
9. The first practical test of intelligence was developed to _____.
10. The ideas of Pavlov and Watson influenced the school of _____.
11. _____ is the contemporary view which combines aspects of both behaviorism and cognitive psychology.
12. Adherents to Albert Banduras viewpoint are best described as _____.
13. The _____ school of psychology was founded by Sigmund Freud.
14. Which psychological approach emphasizes unconscious motives for behavior?
15. _____ was a prominent leader in the field of humanistic psychology.
16. Psychologists who study the role of the brain in mental processing use the _____.
17. An individuals sense of belonging to a particular group is best defined as _____.
18. Cultures that emphasize the importance of individual rights, goals, and accomplishments are considered to be _____.
19. Modern psychology can be roughly divided into which two broad areas of endeavor?
20. The practice of psychiatry is most like the specialty of _____ psychology.
21. If a therapist advertises in the phone book that he is "Roger Smith, therapist concentrating in the treatment of depression," you could assume that he probably:
22. A psychologist has developed an explanation for why we sleep. In scientific terms, his/her explanation would be called a/an _____.
23. An hypothesis is used to _____.
24. A psychologist needs information directly from a lot of people in a very short period of time. He/she would probably benefit from using the _____ method to obtain it.
25. A research study found a relationship between amount of sleep and job performance. The study probably utilized the _____ method of research.
26. A coefficient of correlation indicates _____.
27. A psychology class found a strong correlation between armed robbery and ice cream sales. They could reasonably conclude from this data that _____.
28. A danger in using the correlation strategy is that _____.
29. The _____ research technique allows reasonably confident conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships.
30. If you believe that anxiety causes poor test performance, the best research technique you can use to support or refute that hypothesis is probably the _____ method.
31. The advantage of the experimental method over a correlational study is that an experiment _____.
32. A researcher has 40 people to assign to two groups. He flips a coin repeatedly, and all the "heads" go into group one and the "tails" into group two. This is an example of _____.
33. A psychologist is studying the effects of varying levels of caffeine on anxiety. In this experiment, caffeine is the _____.
34. A psychologist studied the effect of blood alcohol level on driving behavior. In this study, driving behavior was the _____ variable.
35. The _____ group does not receive the independent variable in a formal experiment.
36. An experimenter is testing a new drug to see if it actually helps reduce anxiety. He is utilizing two groups of volunteers. The experimental group will get the new drug and the control group will be given a _____.
37. When is deception allowed in a psychological experiment?
38. Animal behavior is often studied by psychologists primarily because _____.
39. In order for a study to be valid, the participants in the study must be _____ all the people in the population to which the results will apply.
40. The preferred method of assigning participants to experimental and control groups is called _____.
41. What is the route that a message takes within a neuron?
42. How do "nerves" differ from "neurons?"
43. The physical junction between two neurons is called the _____.
44. Which is a true statement about neurotransmitters?
45. Pain receptors transmit information to the brain via _____.
46. _____ and _____ are the two major divisions of the nervous system.
47. A polygraph can monitor changes in heart rate, breathing, and sweating. It is actually monitoring the _____ nervous system.
48. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are divisions of the _____ nervous system.
49. The _____ division of the nervous system helps conserve energy by calming the body.
50. Motives and emotions are heavily influenced by the _____.
51. The _____ controls conscious experience and intelligence.
52. The large bundle of axons that connect the two halves of the brain is the _____.
53. Spatial and artistic abilities appear to be processed primarily in the ____ hemisphere.
54. The pituitary gland is primarily controlled by the _____.
55. The gland known as the "master" gland, because of its extensive influence on the other endocrine glands, is the _____.
56. Hormones differ from neurotransmitters, in that hormones are _____.
57. A fertilized human egg contains _____ pairs of chromosomes.
58. Siblings would have the same genes if _____.
59. Brown hair, dark eyes, and farsightedness are common examples of _____ traits.
60. Twin studies have revealed _____ about the development of sexual orientation.
1(C), 2(B), 3(A), 4(B), 5(B), 6(C), 7A), 8(D), 9(B), 10(A), 11(D), 12(B), 13(C), 14(C), 15(D), 16(A), 17(B), 18(C), 19(C), 20(D), 21(C), 22(A), 23(B), 24(C), 25(D), 26(A), 27(C), 28(A), 29(D), 30(B), 31(C), 32(C), 33(C), 34(C), 35(B), 36(B), 37(A), 38(C), 39(D), 40(C), 41(B), 42(C), 43(C), 44(C), 45(D), 46(C), 47(D), 48(C), 49(C), 50(B), 51(A), 52(D), 53(D), 54(C), 55(B), 56(B), 57(B), 58(D), 59(C), 60(D)
Unit Two1. Which of the following is an acceptable definition of consciousness?
2. Divided consciousness is most useful in understanding _____.
3. If a persons eyes are moving back and forth rapidly under the eyelids, it is likely that he/she is _____.
4. Freud considered _____ to be the "royal road to the unconscious mind."
5. Freud called the "hidden meaning" of a dream its _____ content, and the story you remember when you wake-up, the _____ content.
6. Long distance runners appear to sleep longer and spend more time in deep sleep after a race. This seems to support the _____ theory of sleep.
7. Being deprived of REM sleep for several days _____.
8. Which of the following statements about sleepwalking is false?
9. Jerry is in the middle of a divorce and is having trouble at his job. He has just begun to have a sleep disorder. Which disorder is he most likely having?
10. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by _____.
11. _____ is a sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods of time.
12. An altered state of consciousness, sometimes achieved during meditation, that transcends normal human experience is called _____.
13. Whenever John is feeling down or stressed out, he turns to marijuana to help him relax. His friends notice that he is "relaxing" more and more frequently these days. It is likely that John is _____ marijuana.
14. Jim needed only a small amount of a drug to feel euphoric when he first started. Now, six months later, he needs almost three times that much for the same feeling. Jim _____.
15. Painful withdrawal symptoms and increased tolerance are characteristic of _____.
16. Sue smoked heavily during her pregnancy. Her newborn will most likely be:
17. Psychotropic drugs that increase central nervous system activity, and provide a sense of energy and wellbeing are called _____.
18. When a person sees, hears, or feels something that is not real, he/she is said to be having a/an _____.
19. What is the final stage of the four stages of alcoholism?
20. About how many cigarette smokers are able to completely stop without help?
21. Learning is defined as a _____ change in behavior due to _____.
22. Pavlov described classical conditioning as learning through _____.
23. In order to "cry" during a theater scene, an actress held a handkerchief soaked in onion juice close to her nose. The onion juice served as a/an _____.
24. If your dog associates the sound of an electric can opener with being fed, and comes running whenever he hears the can opener, the classical conditioning term for his/her new running behavior is called a/an _____.
25. Irrational fears of an object or situation that are believed to have been caused by classical conditioning are called _____.
26. _____ is a key element in operant conditioning.
27. Research on operant conditioning suggests that the longer you delay in rewarding a good behavior, the _____.
28. Which of the following best describes a primary reinforcer?
29. A neutral stimulus may become a secondary reinforcer _____.
30. Many psychiatric hospitals offer patients the chance to earn tokens for performing chores, such as cleaning up their rooms, making their beds, etc. The tokens can be used to purchase items at a hospital "store," such as candy or soft drinks. This is an example of _____.
31. Someone who checks the coin return every time he/she passes a public phone booth is probably reinforced on a _____schedule.
32. The strategy of teaching a complex behavior by reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the final behavior to be learned is called _____.
33. Which of the following is a good example of negative reinforcement?
34. You fear that your date will not like your idea of going to a school dance, so you do not even mention it. This is an example of _____.
35. John loves to receive mail, and over the years he has learned to recognize the sound of the approaching mail truck versus other vehicles passing his house. This is called:
36. If the state police drive yellow fords, you may immediately check your speed any time you see a yellow ford approaching. This reaction is known as _____.
37. The process of learning through observation is known as _____.
38. Research indicates that it is easier to condition people to fear things that have some intrinsic association with danger, such as snakes, heights, or spiders, versus things that are not normally associated with danger, such as crowds or elevators. This suggests that people are _____ prepared to learn to fear certain things.
39. Reinforcing stimuli that accidentally follow a behavior, but appear to the individual as the natural consequence of that behavior, often lead to _____ reinforcement.
40. Martin Seligman has suggested that _____ often develops through learned helplessness.
41. A mental category for organizing objects and events in the environment is called a:
42. _____ is a problem solving strategy that involves testing one possible solution after another.
43. Which of the following is a characteristic of expertise?
44. The question, "How many ways can you use a paper clip?" calls for _____ .
45. It is thought that creative people have a greater ability to use _____ thinking.
46. The basic units of sound in a language are called _____.
47. The theory that the structure of our language influences the way we think is expressed by _____.
48. Several efforts have been made to teach apes human language, with varying degrees of success. The big issue seems to be whether apes _____.
49. The ability of an individual to reason, to adapt, and to learn from experience is a definition of _____.
50. _____ popularized the term "intelligence" and believed that intelligence is inherited.
51. The ability to learn, or to invent, new strategies for dealing with new problems is called _____.
52. _____ was the first person to develop a useful measure of intelligence.
53. In the original Stanford-Binet, IQ was calculated as "mental age _____ chronological age, ____ 100."
54. According to the original Stanford-Binet formula for IQ, if a childs mental age is greater than his/her chronological age, this would mean that _____.
55. In a normal distribution, scores tend to _____.
56. If a person receives similar scores on a test that she takes several times on different occasions, then the test is said to be _____.
57. If an IQ test given at your local school system proves to be poor at predicting later school performance, and has a low correlation with the very best IQ tests, you can suspect that the test has low _____.
58. _____ is a true statement concerning the intelligence scores of identical twins.
59. What is the importance of intelligence test scores in modern society?
60. Which of the four designations of retardation accounts for the largest number of retarded individuals in this country?
1(C), 2(B), 3(B), 4(A), 5(B), 6(D), 7(B), 8(D), 9(C), 10(C), 11(D), 12(B), 13(D), 14(C), 15(D), 16(A), 17(D), 18(D), 19(C), 20(C), 21(C), 22(A), 23(D), 24(C), 25(C), 26(C), 27(A), 28(D), 29(C), 30(A), 31(C), 32(B), 33(C), 34(D), 35(A), 36(D), 37(A), 38(B), 39(C), 40(A), 41(D), 42(D), 43(A), 44(D), 45(D), 46(D), 47(B), 48(C), 49(D), 50(A), 51(C), 52(D), 53(B), 54(A), 55(A), 56(C), 57(C), 58(A), 59)D), 60(D)
1. Developmental psychology is best described as the study of _____.
2. The nature versus nurture issue involves the relative contribution of _____ to human development.
3. Imprinting _____ the critical period hypothesis.
4. Jean Piaget is known for his influential theory of _____ development.
5. Your roommate advises you not to cheat on an exam because you might get caught and expelled from the college. This reasoning is Kohlbergs _____ level of moral development.
6. Erik Erikson sees personality development as _____.
7. Eriksons first stage of personality development is _____.
8. _____ is the final stage of Eriksons theory of personality development.
9. Piaget believed that children acquire object permanence during the _____ stage.
10. "Visual cliff" experiments suggest that infants _____.
11. A young child talking to his grandmother on the telephone holds up a picture he has painted and says, "How do you like my picture grandma?" He is demonstrating _____.
12. Boys outnumber girls at the _____ levels of verbal ability and at the _____ levels of mathematical problem-solving ability.
13. Piaget believed that a child usually entered the _____ stage during adolescence.
14. Elderly people show declines in _____ when compared with young adults.
15. Overall, what effect does aging have on personality characteristics?
16. Daniel Levinson believes that middle adulthood begins with _____.
17. Erikson views the late sixties and beyond as the stage of _____.
18. Kubler-Ross identified the stages experienced by terminally ill patients as occuring in the order of _____.
19. Adoptive parents are most likely to influence their childrens _____.
20. What best signifies secure attachment in an 18 to 24 month old toddler?
21. Motivation must be inferred from _____ because it cannot be directly observed.
22. Internal mechanisms of the body that regulate essential life processes, such as hunger, thirst, and temperature control, are known as _____.
23. Which of the following is a primary motive?
24. The brain area important to the regulation of hunger and satiety is the _____.
25. When our bodies need certain food substances, such as a vitamin or protein, _____.
26. Some people refuse to eat pork for religious reasons. If one of these people was starving and still refused to eat pork, it could be said that a _____ motive was stronger than a _____ motive.
27. The general preference among humans to be with other humans is called the _____.
28. An internal desire to do good just for the sake of doing good is evidence of _____ motivation.
29. The lowest or most basic level in Maslows hierarchy of needs are called _____ needs.
30. The highest motive in Maslow hierarchy is _____.
31. According to the James-Lange theory of emotions _____.
32. Which theory of emotion supports the belief that the experience of an emotion occurs simultaneously with bodily arousal?
33. The polygraph actually measures _____.
34. During a polygraph session, a person is asked a series of questions that only the person who committed the crime could answer. This is called a _____ test.
35. Research shows that people who have been blind since birth exhibit the same facial expressions for basic emotions as people who see normally. This suggests that some emotional expressions are _____.
36. Freud used the term _____ to describe the release of pent-up emotional energy.
37. The frustration-aggression hypothesis maintains that _____.
38. Social learning theory suggests that catharsis in the form of hitting a punching bag or throwing things will lead to _____.
39. The rate at which your body uses energy is called _____.
40. Besides burning calories, why is regular, aerobic exercise important?
41. A persons characteristic ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that make that person different from all others is called his/her _____.
42. If you believe that Karl will make a good class president because he is "outgoing and sensitive," you are subscribing to a _____ perspective.
43. Which of the following is not one of the "big five" personality traits?
44. Freud believed that the _____ is a mass of primitive sexual and aggressive instincts that we are born with.
45. According to Freud, the major responsibility of the ego is to _____.
46. A young boy feels guilty after looking through some adult magazines. Freud would say that the source of his guilt is his _____.
47. Erika got angry at her 5th grade teacher, but was afraid to show her anger. Instead, she went home after school and vented her anger on her younger brother. Freud would call this behavior _____.
48. According to Freud, the Oedipal complex and the Electra complex develop and are resolved during the _____ stage of psychosexual personality development.
49. Most people intuitively understand that incest is wrong, even they are not told this directly. Jung would explain this as part of the _____.
50. Jung disagreed with Freuds _____.
51. A basic theme in Adlers personality theory is that we grow up in a world of bigger, stronger, wiser, and more powerful adults. Because of this, all children experience _____.
52. Adler criticized Freud for denying the importance of the human need for healthy _____.
53. The personality theory that stresses the importance of reinforcement and imitation is _____ theory.
54. The social learning theory perception that people are capable of doing what is necessary to reach their goals is known as _____.
55. Which of the following would be in most agreement with humanistic personality theories?
56. Maladjustment is seen by Rogers as resulting from _____.
57. The personality assessment tool that is used the most is the _____.
58. The Rorschach "inkblot" test is good example of a/an _____ personality test.
59. When taking the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), a person is asked to _____.
60. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a/an _____ personality test designed to discriminate between normal people and those with mental problems.
1(D), 2(D), 3(B), 4(B), 5(C), 6(C), 7(B), 8(B), 9(A), 10(B), 11(C), 12(B), 13(A), 14(D), 15(D), 16(A), 17(A), 18(C), 19(D), 20(D), 21(C), 22(A), 23(A), 24(C), 25(C), 26(C), 27(A), 28(D), 29(A), 30(D), 31(D), 32(C), 33(A), 34(D), 35(B), 36(B), 37(C), 38(B), 39(C), 40(B), 41(C), 42(B), 43(A), 44(C), 45(A), 46(D), 47(C), 48(C), 49(B), 50(B), 51(C), 52(C), 53(C), 54(D), 55(B), 56(A), 57(C), 58(C), 59(A), 60(A)
1. The _____ hypothesis states that abnormal behavior is similar to normal behavior except that it is more severe and harmful.
2. From earliest history until the mid 1700s, abnormal behavior was thought to be a result of _____.
3. Most contemporary psychologists believe that biological factors _____ behavior disorders.
4. "Insanity" is best characterized as a _____ term.
5. An individual who has pervasive, serious problems with nervousness, tension, worry, and fright, is most likely suffering from a/an _____ .
6. The difference between a fear and a phobia, is that a phobia is _____.
7. Jennifer worries constantly about grades, classes, and about how her family and friends feel about her. She seems anxious about most everything in her life. She is most likely to be suffering from _____.
8. An anxiety disorder characterized by long periods of calm broken by intensely uncomfortable anxiety attacks, is called _____.
9. Jack was sitting and reading a book, when suddenly he felt as if he was "losing his mind." His heart beat faster, and he began to sweat and tremble. His behavior most resembles _____.
10. Brad has been reliving his war experiences since he returned from Vietnam over 20 years ago. He is frequently tense and feels a deep sense of guilt that he survived when others did not. His most likely diagnosis is _____ disorder.
A. generalized anxiety
11. Peggy is troubled by persistent thoughts about her children being harmed by a strange man. These thoughts will not go away even though she tries her best to think of other things. Her symptoms sound as if she is having _____.
12. If a woman feels an irrational need to touch every parking meter she passes as she walks along the street, she may be suffering from a/an _____.
13. Disorders which cause an individual to experience symptoms of physical health problems that have psychological rather than physical causes, are known as _____ disorders.
14. Millie goes to the doctor at least twice a month and is always worried about becoming ill, even though her doctor assures her that her health is fine. Millies behavior suggests _____.
15. Somatoform disorders in which individuals experience serious somatic symptoms, such as functional blindness, deafness, or paralysis, with no physical cause, are known as _____ disorders.
16. Amnesia caused by extreme psychological stress is called _____ amnesia.
17. In dissociative identity disorder, the individuals original personality is usually _____.
18. Many psychologists believe that dissociative identity disorder is caused by _____.
19. Juan has periods of boundless energy followed by periods of sadness and depression. These symptoms most closely resembles a/an _____ disorder.
20. A _____ is a belief that is held despite obvious evidence that it is not true.
21. Mental patients sometimes hear, see, taste, or feel things that are not real. These false perceptions are called _____.
22. Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for _____.
23. Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that _____.
24. People who violate social rules and laws, take advantage of others, and feel little, if any, guilt about their behavior are often diagnosed as _____.
25. The general goal of clinical psychology is to _____.
26. Psychoanalytic, humanistic, and behavioral are all examples of _____.
27. The highest ethical standards must be maintained during psychotherapy due to the differences in _____ between the therapist and the client.
28. If a therapist discovers that her client has a problem she is not qualified to treat, she should _____.
A. go back to school for more training
29. If a therapist reveals information about a client to the clients family members without the clients consent, this action is _____.
30. A _____ therapist would be most likely to use free association and dream analysis to explain unconscious motivations.
31. A technique used by Freud to encourage clients to talk about whatever comes to mind, giving the unconscious mind an opportunity to slip past the censorship of the ego, is known as _____.
32. A clients tendency to express feelings of affection and approval for his/her psychoanalyst is called _____.
33. "Client centered" therapy is a form of _____ therapy.
34. Behavioral therapists view abnormal behavior as _____.
35. Systematic desensitization is most effective in treating _____.
36. A _____ therapist is most likely to believe that a client acts depressed because his/her behavior is being rewarded by other people.
37. If Jan is afraid of crowds and her therapist decides to use the "in vivo flooding technique" to help her, which of the following will Jan most likely be asked to do?
38. Which of the following would most likely be a goal of assertiveness training?
39. If a therapist has his/her alcoholic client take a drink that has been mixed with a nausea-inducing drug so that the client will become ill after drinking the alcohol, the therapist is using _____.
40. Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because they mistakenly believe they must please everyone and be successful at everything?
41. Cognitive therapy has been especially helpful in treating _____.
42. A client having a difficult time interacting with others and making new friends might benefit most from _____.
43. In family therapy, it is assumed that the:
44. The most common form of medical therapy is _____.
45. A client is very depressed, threatening suicide, and not responding to antidepressant drugs. Which of the following treatment is most likely to help him/her?
46. What is a serious disadvantage of prolonged use of antipsychotic medication?
47. One side effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is that the client may _____.
48. An individual who needs help with a mental problem, but cannot afford to pay much, if anything, for his/her treatment, would best be served by contacting a _____.
49. Any professional listed in the phone book under the title "psychiatrist," must by law be _____.
50. If a psychologist tells you that his therapy approach is "eclectic," he means that he _____.
1(A), 2(C), 3(A), 4(B), 5(B), 6(B), 7(B), 8(B), 9(D), 10(C), 11(C), 12(C), 13(C), 14(A), 15(B), 16(B), 17(D), 18(B), 19(A), 20(A), 21(B), 22(B), 23(A), 24(A), 25(C), 26(B), 27(A), 28(B), 29(C), 30(C), 31(C), 32(A), 33(D), 34(B), 35(C), 36(D), 37(C), 38(D), 39(B), 40(D), 41(D), 42(B), 43(C), 44(A), 45(B), 46(D), 47(D), 48(B), 49(A), 50(A)